THIS town was chartered through the efforts of John Evarts, of Salisbury, Conn., acting as agent for other dwellers in that region, November 3, 1761, at the same time and in the same manner that New Haven and Middlebury were chartered. Beginning the survey at the Lower Falls (Vergennes), the three towns were laid out, as heretofore described in the history of the town of Middlebury. The charter was granted by Benning Wentworth in the usual form and with the usual reservations; the number of grantees was sixty-one. The tract chartered, was to contain all area about six miles square, or 23,040 acres. Only one of the original grantees ever settled in the town. Otter Creek was named in the survey as the west line of the town.
Page 596 HISTORY OF ADDISON COUNTY.
The town of Salisbury extends eastward from the creek to near the summit of the Green Mountain range, several considerable peaks of which are partly within the town limits. Nearly all of the mountainous part of the town is still wild and uncultivated, and much of it covered with timber. The central part is level or rolling, while the western part along Otter Creek is level, and, with the exception of a considerable tract of marsh land along the creek, is very, productive. Near the streams the soil is of a rich, alluvial character; the low and swampy tracts are muck on a clay subsoil, while the higher areas are clay and loam. The whole town was originally covered with a heavy growth of timber, mostly deciduous, with pine on portions of the flat lands.
The principal streams are the Leicester River, Middlebury River, and Otter Creek, the latter forming the western boundary. Leicester River has its source in Lake Dunmore and flows southwest through the village and on into the town of Leicester; this stream affords excellent water power. Middlebury River flows through about a mile of the northern part of the town, when a bend takes it again into the town of Middlebury. Lake Dunmore is the largest body of water, and extends across the line into Leicester. It is renowned for the beauty of its scenery and purity of its waters, and in recent years has acquired much popularity as a pleasure resort.
When the town of Leicester was chartered it was intended that it should have an equal extent of territory with Salisbury; but after Brandon to the south, and Middlebury on the north, had been laid out, it was discovered that only about eight miles of distance were left for the two towns of Leicester and Salisbury, or four miles for each, instead of six. This state of affairs led to a great deal of difficulty, which continued until April, 1796, when a committee was chosen to adjust the matter, consisting of John Smith, Benjamin Garfield, and Joseph Woodward, of Leicester, and Eleazer Claghorn, Salathiel Bump, Stephen Hard, Holland Weeks, and Elias Kelsey, of Salisbury. This committee settled upon a line which gave each of the two towns about four miles of the territory remaining, or about 16,000 acres. The report was accepted by the people of both towns and harmony restored.
On the 1st of November, 1832, a part of Salisbury was annexed to Ripton, comprising a strip of land sixty rods wide and about 900 rods long. In 1786 a part of Middlebury was annexed to Salisbury, and a slight alteration was made in the southern boundary of the town by the law of 1840.
Early Settlements. -- It seems that little or no interest was felt by the original grantees in clearing and settling the territory of Salisbury. In 1774, however, a gratuity Of 200 acres, in addition to his original share, was offered to any person who would become an actual settler. This had the effect of beginning permanent settlements in the town.
The first among the early settlers were Joshua Graves and his son Jesse, who came into town early in the spring of 1774. They pitched a hundred
Page 597 TOWN OF SALISBURY.
acres near the present depot, intending to locate in the northwest corner of the town. Here they built a small log house, cleared up a few acres of land and sowed it to wheat, and early in September returned to their home in Arlington, where they spent the remaining part of the season. This was the first clearing made for the purpose of agriculture in Salisbury. The following year Mr. Graves again visited his newly-made home, to which he finally moved his family in the latter part of the winter of 1775. Joshua, son of Chauncy, and grandson of the first settler, was the first child born in the town.
Amos Story, a native of Norwich, Conn., and his son Solomon in September, 1774, a few months after Mr. Graves's commencement, pitched a hundred acres adjoining that of Mr. Graves on the south. Here he also put up a small log house and commenced clearing his land, with the expectation of raising wheat sufficient to supply bread for his family, which he intended to move to his new home the following year.
Soon after the death of Amos Story, Solomon returned to his friends in Rutland, and carried the sad news of his father's death to his bereaved mother and other relatives. Mrs. Story was a woman of large stature and masculine appearance, and possessed the physical strength and hardihood indicated thereby. With such qualifications she and her three sons, Solomon, Ephraim, and Samuel, and her daughters, Hannah and Susannah, moved to their farm in Salisbury in the latter part of the year 1775, and took possession of the log house her husband had erected. Here she labored with her boys on the farm, taking the lead in the labors of clearing the land, raising grain and other products necessary to sustain her growing family, until the early part of the year 1777. Soon after it was known by the settlers in this region that war existed between England and her colonies here, it was thought best that the inhabitants, so few in number in this vicinity, should either remove to the southern part of the State, where the population was more dense and where they could better protect themselves from the hostility of the Indians, or return to their former homes, which were mostly in Connecticut, and there await the issue of the war. But Mrs. Story, being able to use the musket to good advantage on necessary occasions, concluded to remain with her children and undertake the risks of completing her settlement. In the latter part of December, 1776, or early in 1777, Story and her family returned to Rutland, and lived in the north part of that town, spending most of her summers at work on her Salisbury farm. In 1792, her sons having reached maturity and her daughters having married, she was united in marriage to Benjamin Smalley. He died in 1808, and she again married, in 1812, Captain Stephen Goodrich, one of the first settlers in Middlebury, and lived comfortably and happily with him on a farm in the northern part of this town until her decease, which occurred April 5, 1817. She was seventy-five years of age, and was buried in the graveyard of District No. 1, in Middlebury.
Page 598 HISTORY OF ADDISON COUNTY.
After the commencement of the Revolutionary War Joshua Graves moved back as far as Rutland, but remained there but a short time before he and his boys returned to their farm in Salisbury in the summer of 1776, and built another house in the place of the one destroyed by the Indians, and in September returned again to their family in Rutland. Mr. Graves, not approving of this hazardous experiment of settling a new country in time of war, moved his family again to his farm early in the spring of 1777, with the intention of making a permanent settlement. In June of that year they were captured by Indians and taken to Ticonderoga by way of Brandon; they were soon released, however, and returned home. They then buried their treasures in the ground, and returned to Rutland until the close of the war.
The controversy between Salisbury and Leicester, and to some extent that between the settlers under the New Hampshire grants and those settling under the grants from New York, considerably retarded the settlement of lands within this town. The former cause was especially a source of delay, by rendering the title to land more insecure than even the most foolhardy adventurer was willing to abide. The settlement of both these difficulties opened the flood gates of immigration, and crowded this and adjoining towns so thick that actual inconvenience was felt in providing for the new-comers before they were able to raise their own crops.
Salathiel Bump came to Salisbury before 1790, from Wallingford, Vt., and located about one-half mile north of the village site, on the place now occupied by his son, Franklin Bump. Cyrus Bump is also his son. He was a soldier of the Revolution, and was many years a justice of the peace in this town. He was many times sent to the Legislature as representative. Cyrus is and for many years has been a prominent man in town; has held nearly all the offices in the gift of the town, and has been sent to one Constitutional Convention. His sons are Dr. Orlow M. Bump, who lives with his father on the homestead, and Arthur V., deceased. Cyrus A. is son of Arthur. Other descendants of Salathiel Bump are found in the families of Beach, Allen, Smith, Capron, Jefferson, Rounds, Elmore, Crook, Ranno, Moses, Paine, Ward, Gibson, Harris, Boardman, Briggs, and Hamilton.
Ephraim Crook came here from Westminster, Vt., in 1793, and settled on a tract of land three miles north of the village, which has since been divided into several farms. Most of the property is now owned by Miss Ranney. He became a very wealthy man. His wife, Fanny, became an efficient midwife, and practiced until her death in 1846. His descendants are Crook, Dike, Weeks, Barker, Wooster, Hyde, and Merrill. One of his sons, Samuel S., was born at Westminster on the 11th of January, 1789, and came here with his father. He lived about one and a half miles north of his father. About the beginning of the War of 1812, having had two or three years' experience as clerk, he determined to engage in the mercantile business, and with that object
Page 599 TOWN OF SALISBURY.
bought out the store of Jacob Linsley in the village. He returned to agricultural pursuits in about a year, being depressed by the evil influence of the war upon trade. He married Elizabeth Sheldon in 1816, but had no children. In 1845 and '46 he represented the town in the State Legislature. In 1848 he removed to Middlebury.
Abe Waterous, another settler of 1784, was a Revolutionary soldier who took part in several battles, among which was the battle of Bennington. He died about the year 1800, and has descendants yet living in town.
Elias Kelsey, a native of Guilford, Conn., came to Salisbury in 1785 and located about one and a half miles from the south line of Middlebury. He was elected the first constable, was on the first committee to lay out roads, and among the first selectmen. Among his several sons, Elias, jr., lived in town one month more than sixty-seven years, and died on the 28th of April, 1852, aged seventy- seven years. Two of his sons, John W. and Loyal, are now living In town.
Samuel Pierce, born in Canaan, Conn., settled in the northwestern part of the town. He was a soldier of the Revolution, and was distinguished for his muscular strength and agility. He held the office of constable for fourteen years in succession. His grandson, Samuel Pierce, is a resident of Salisbury.
Thomas Savery and Henry Kelar, both Revolutionary soldiers, the former from Sutton, Mass., and the latter from Orange county, N. Y., came here in 1788. The former lived in a number of places while here. He served at the battles of Lexington, Monmouth, and White Plains, and has numerous descendants now in town.
Holland Weeks, from Litchfield, Conn., purchased of Benning Wentworth the governor's right in this town, and settled on it in 1789. He received the title in 1785 and made his survey in 1787. In 1788 he built a log house and made all necessary preparations for bringing on his family. He died of lung fever on the 22d of November, 1812. His son, John M., succeeded to the homestead and passed his days thereon. John M. Weeks was the author of the valuable History of Salisbury, published in 1860, from which we have made liberal extracts in the preparation of this work. He was born in Litchfield, Conn., on the 22d of May, 1788. He married Harriet Prindle, of Charlotte, Vt., on the 19th of February, 1818, by whom he had five children. He invented the Vermont beehive, the first improvement on the old-fashioned hive, and lived to see his invention in general use throughout the United States. His first wife died October 24, 1853, and on the 6th of January, 1856, he married Mrs. Emily Davenport, of Middlebury. He died on the morning of September 1, 1858.
Solomon Story, brother of Amos Story, was from Norwich, Conn., and later from Dalton, Mass., and settled here in 1789, in the west part of the town. He died on May 22, 1816, aged ninety years. Captain Rufus Story was his son. Jonas Story, another son of Solomon, came to town with his father, and by
Page 600 HISTORY OF ADDISON COUNTY.
chopping, and working at other kinds of manual labor, paid his own expenses while pursuing legal studies. He was finally admitted to the bar, and practiced the whole of his long life in Poughkeepsie, N. Y.
Gilbert Everts, jr., a native of Salisbury, Conn., came here with his father in 1786, and settled in the northeast part of the town. At his death he bequeathed about one hundred and fifty dollars to the Congregational Church, of which he was a member. His daughter married Lothrop, brother of Cyrus Bump.
Simeon Strong, also a Revolutionary soldier, came from Salisbury, Conn., in 1790, and located on the place next north of Cyrus Bump. He was father to Cyrus Bump's mother.
Samuel Taylor, from Eastham, N. H., settled in 1795 in the southwestern part of the town, on the place now owned by Mr. Leland. He had a family of ten children. One of his sons is a prominent farmer of Cornwall, and another, Edgar, resides in Addison.
Samuel Daniels, from Upton, Mass., settled here in 1775, on the land which, by the compromise of 1796, was ceded to Leicester. He was a soldier of the Revolution and was killed by the Indians and Tories in 1778. He had two sons, Dan and Samuel, the former of whom remained on the homestead until his death. Augustus Daniels, here now, is son to Dan Daniels.
Solomon Thomas came here about the year 1800 from Chittenden, Vt., and settled in the east part of the town, near the center, and passed his life on the farm. George Thomas, of the village, and William are his sons.
Jabez Spencer came into Salisbury from New Haven, Conn., in the year 1807 and settled on Otter Creek. He was also a Revolutionary soldier. He had twelve children, of whom only one is alive in Leicester.
Moses Sheldon, from Salisbury, Conn., moved to this town in 1810. He married a daughter of Samuel Keep. His grandson, Moses Sheldon, now occupies the homestead.
Samuel Keep, also from Salisbury, Conn., was one of the original grantees of the town. He settled at Crown Point, N. Y., about 1773, and was one of Ethan Allen's advisers in taking the fort at Ticonderoga in 1775. After he came to this town he immediately engaged in the business of iron making, and superintended the erection of forges. He died in Brandon in the year 1802, aged seventy-one.
Seymour Waterhouse came early to the west part of Salisbury with his grandfather. He had eight sons. W. A. and L. N. Waterhouse are now living here. One son lives in New York and four have taken up their residence in California.
Levi Briggs, from Middleborough, Mass., settled in Salisbury village 1819. His second son, Levi, was constable and deputy sheriff many years; and the third, Sumner, filled many town offices with credit, among which was
Page 601 TOWN OF SALISBURY.
that of town representative and trustee of the public money. Henry died at Forestdale.
Among other early, settlers was James Bradley, who first held the office of town treasurer, in which he continued as long as he remained in town, and Eliphaz Perkins, a man of great worth both as a physician and citizen. There were also families of whom no mention has been made, bearing the name of Chipman, Reynolds, Johnson, Huntley, Buel, Sutherland, Richardson, Sherman, Phelps, Rossiter, Horsley, Church, Case, Chamberlain, Wells, Baker, Hildreth, Ellsworth, Sterling, Fuller, Merifield, Lyon, Hawes, Stephens, Bailey, Taylor, Alden, Race, Beebe, Golden, Palmatier, Codman, Larkin, Lakin, Skeele, Chafee, Kilburn, Sprague, McDonald, McCombie, Austin, Goodenough, Porter, French, Pattison, Langley, Cheney, Fitch, Linsly, Toby and many others.
In the grand list for the town in 1788 we find the names of the following settlers additional to those given, and have given therewith the locality where each lived, as far as we have been able to ascertain it. Eleazer Claghorn lived in the west part of the town; Francis Strong where Augustus Daniels now owns; Joseph Dolph in the south part; Bazadiel Richardson in the west part; Abram Hard where Benjamin Eastwood owns; Eber Everts where the widow of Alonzo Boardman owns; Alfred Smauley (Smalley) where the widow of Andrew Wainwright owns; Barnabas L. Chipman in the northern part; Josiah Farnahm in the vicinity of the depot site; Asa and Jesse Graves on land owned by Columbus Smith; James Bradley where D. E. Gibson owns; James Baker where Edward Nash lives; Asa Huntly where Myron Page owns; Joseph Graves where James and Willard Whitney live; Aaron Adams near the center of the town; Ami Chipman where Albro Ranney lives; Stephen Hard in tile central part; Isaiah Golden near where John E. Dyer lives; John Hodson where Sidney Branch lives; Samuel Pierce in the west part, where Royal Hedden lives; Elijah Skeel where Cyrus Bump lives; James Waterous in the west part; Wm. Cobb where Lucius Leland lives; Ephraim Story where Norman Story afterward lived, on the place now occupied by Lyman Morgan; Curtis Smith where the stone school-house stood. Others in the list whom we cannot locate were Chauncey Graves, Diah Waterous, John Ensign, Obadiah Wheeler, Samuel Abbott, David Seymour, Justus and James Sutherlin, Joel Newton, Jehiel Smith, and Griffith Plaice. These families and their descendants constitute the principal portion of those who have been instrumental in building up the town and making what it is. They cleared their lands and turned their attention in early years chiefly to agricultural pursuits. Wheat was formerly grown in considerable quantities, while the cutting of the hard wood which abounded in the forests, and selling it at Middlebury, occupied the inhabitants in winter seasons for many years and brought a considerable revenue to the town. Cyrus Bump states that his father and others drew wheat to
Page 602 HISTORY OF ADDISON COUNTY.
Troy, N. Y., for many seasons, returning with salt and other commodities. Hogs were taken to Boston and sold, and groceries bought for the return trip. Finally manufacturing operations began on a limited scale and continued to prosper for years, as hereafter noted.
It will not be out of place to here trace a few more of the settlers of the town, some of whom came here in later years. Henry R. Schoolcraft was born in Albany county, N. Y., in 1793, and settled in Salisbury in 1812 or '13 and assisted in the erection and management of the glass-works of the Vermont Company both here and in Middlebury. While living at Lake Dunmore he erected a chemical furnace and experimental laboratory, and at the same time studied chemistry and mineralogy under Professor F. Hall, of Middlebury College. In 1815 he went West. Thomas Sawyer was born in Bolton, Mass., in 1742, and was bred a millwright. He took a prominent part in the Revolutionary movements of the age in which he lived. He was placed in many important offices in Massachusetts during the preliminary battles of the Revolution. In the latter part of 1776 he was stationed for a short time at Ticonderoga, and when his time of service had expired at that place he returned to his family in Massachusetts. In making this journey he passed through a part of Vermont, and was impressed with the opportunities here presented for enterprise and usefulness. In 1777 he moved his family to Clarendon, where he built a bullet-proof block-house of solid oak timber. Even the windows were provided with such heavy shutters that a bullet could not be made to pass through them. He remained in Clarendon until 1783, when he began operations in Salisbury, at the falls where the village now is, and near Lake Dunmore. Here he erected the first saw-mill, and on the 1st day of June, 1783, sawed the first log, having in two months erected a dam and a building sufficiently large for a saw-mill and a grist-mill, the latter of which was put in operation in the following winter. As this part of Salisbury was claimed by Leicester at that time, he was the first representative from that town in the State Legislature, and was also one of its first magistrates. He left the State in 1795, and settled with his family in what is now called Manchester, Ontario county, N. Y., where he died three years afterward. Jonathan Gibson was born in Fitchburg, Mass., in the year 1775. He came into Salisbury as early as 1798, but did not make a permanent settlement until some years later. At the time of his settlement he had no property, but purchased a farm on such liberal terms of payment that, with his great industry and economy, in a few years he was not only free from debt, but was considered one of the most prosperous farmers in the town. He served the town in the capacity of one of the selectmen seven or eight years, and was its representative in the General Assembly in 1815, '16, and '17. He died of a cancer November 22, 1851. John M. Dyer, of West Salisbury, came here from Clarendon in 1832. He is one of the foremost citizens of the town and a large owner of real estate. He
Page 603 TOWN OF SALISBURY.
has represented the town in both branches of the Legislature several terms; owns the Dyer block in Middlebury and one in Vergennes, with large tracts of land. Horace Thomas, one of the old citizens of the town, was born on the farm he now occupies. Asahel Martin located in 1822 on the farm now occupied by his son Henry. The settlement of Joshua Graves has been alluded to. The farm on which he located is now owned by his grandson, Columbus Smith, who has erected near the railroad depot one of the finest private residences in the State, which is known as Shard Villa. Mr. Smith's father, Joseph, settled early in that part of the town. Columbus Smith was born on the farm where he lives in 1819, and studied law and was admitted to the bar in 1847. He has given much of his life to the collection of claims and estates in Europe, and has passed many years in the Old World. William Wainwright, father of Andrew D., was born in New Haven, Conn., October 24, 1779, and removed to Salisbury in 1801, and about two years after his arrival here he located upon the farm now occupied by Andrew D., where he died in 1858, aged seventy-nine years. Mr. Wainwright was an enterprising man and took a prominent part in public affairs. Andrew D. was born on the old homestead in 1828.
The names of others prominent in the town must be left for our notice of the manufacturing, mercantile, and other interests of the community.
Proprietors' Acts. -- The first meeting of the proprietors of Salisbury was held at Salisbury, Conn., in January, 1762, and there the following officers were elected: Josiah Stodard, proprietors' clerk; Elias Reed, Alexander Gaston, Nathaniel Buel, selectmen; John Evarts, treasurer; S. Moore, jr., collector. At a subsequent meeting Nathaniel Buel was made a committee for lotting out the town into first and second divisions, and a tax of nine shillings was laid upon each proprietor to defray the expense of the same. Mr. Buel entered immediately upon the duties of his office, and soon thereafter returned to the proprietors' clerk a plan and survey, determining the north and south line, together with a survey of what was called the home lots. It appears that Mr. Buel employed Samuel Moore to do this surveying, and his name alone appears on the plan which was placed on file in the town clerk's office. Mr. Moore seems to have commenced his survey at the southwest corner of Middlebury, on the bank of Otter Creek, and from that point to have run east to the foot of the mountain, and probably no farther at that time, but commenced laying off lots southerly, and on a line running south ten degrees west, six miles and sixty-four rods. As the lots were headed on this line near the base of the mountain, they were laid fifty-two rods wide, running west three hundred and twenty rods. Every sixth lot was laid fifty-six rods wide, allowance being made for roads. But as the surveyor approached Lake Dunmore in his work he found that some of his lots were shortened by the water of that lake, and to make up this deficiency in these lots, he made them of greater width. Lots No. 13, 14, 15 and 16 are of this class. In this manner thirty-
Page 604 HISTORY OF ADDISON COUNTY.
seven lots were laid in the first tier, and all numbered. The lots of the second tier were headed on the foot of those of the first.
One of the last votes of the proprietors found on record, previous to the Revolution, was taken at a proprietors' meeting held at Salisbury, Conn., December 19, 1774, to wit: "Voted, Joseph Waterous, Samuel Moore, jr., Amos Storey, be a committee to run the line of the town and ascertain its true boundaries." Another vote was taken at this meeting, which allowed any of the grantees who would become settlers within one year from that time to pitch two hundred acres in addition to their shares.
The grantees had, previous to this, offered a hundred acres of land to any one who would pitch and settle in this town, which finally led to the first settlements, as before described.
There are no records of this town to be found between the years 1774 and 1785, and the proprietors' records are much mutilated, so that much of the early progress of the community can only be conjectured; but it is believed that in 1785, 1786, and 1787 settlement and developement were rapid.
At the town meeting for the year 1788, the first of which we have complete records, the following officers were elected: Town clerk, Eleazer Claghorn; selectmen, Eleazer Claghorn, Stephen Hard, James Waterous; treasurer, James Bradley; representative, Stephen Hard; constable, Stephen Hard.
Eleazer Claghorn continued in the office of clerk until 1795, when he was succeeded by Stephen Hard, who held the office until 1799. Reuben Saxon was then elected, and filled the office to 1828, a period of twenty-eight years
The present officers of the town are as follows: Clerk, L. N. Waterhouse; treasurer, Horace Thomas; selectmen, W. H. Thomas, M. M. Dowd, E. A. Hamilton; constable and overseer, James W. Thomas; superintendent, O. M. Bump; listers, L. N. Waterhouse, J. E. Weeks, W. W. Dowd; agent, J. M. Dyer.
The later gradual progress of the town cannot be traced in detail. The inhabitants have performed their share of labor for the general good of the commonwealth and from the close of the War of 1812 to the breaking out of the great rebellion peace and a fair degree of prosperity, reigned.
In the great war for the preservation of the Union this town sustained an honorable part. The following list gives the names of the volunteers from the town in Vermont organizations, as far as known:
Volunteers for three years credited previous to call for 300,000 volunteers of October 17, 1863:
J. Ashley, G. W. Baird, J. Baker, J. T. Beach, W. O. Beach, W. Birchard, J. Bovia, H. H. Bushey, A. Carriveaux, L. Carvo, S. Chapman, O. Clark, G. H. Cloyes, J. Comstock, J. Comstock, C. Constantinople, H. Currier, H. S. Daggett, Q. Doty, J. Edwards, W. R. Ellis, E. Forrest, S. J. Gambell, W. Garland, R. A. Graves, C. F. Greenleaf, L. G. Hack, E. A. Hamilton, G. W.
Page 605 TOWN OF SALISBURY.
Henderson, R. T. Howard, R. Hudson, H. Huntley, L. D. Huntley, W. F. Huntley, J. Lamorder, C. Laquee, J. Laquee, N. Larnerd, R. R. Lawrence, J. Leno, F. W. Noyes, N. Page, H. L. Perry, A. J. Piper, H. Pratt, H. M. Race, S. Richards, J. Savery, J. E. Savery, W. J. Savery, O. L. Spencer, P. St. George, H. Taylor, H. M. Taylor, T. Thomas, W. J. Thomas, C. A. Walker.
Credits under call of October 17, 1863, for 300,000 volunteers, and subsequent calls:
Volunteers for three years. -- E. Baker, L. C. Bell, J. C. Comaford, J. M. Comaford, N. Forrest, H. Little, C. A. Walker, T. Wilcox.
Volunteers re-enlisted. -- J. Baker, W. Birchard, S. Chapman, L. G. Hack, J. Laquee, R. R. Lawrence, S. Miles.
Not credited by name. -- Two men.
Volunteers for nine months. -- H. J. Boardman, J. D. Boardman, M. C. Bump, G. H. Cloyes, T. E. Kelsey, J. Morse, N. Spencer, jr., S. Sumner, W. J. Thomas, F. A. Waterhouse, J. M. Whitney, F. Wilcox.
Furnished under draft. -- Paid commutation, W. Dowd, R. Graves, A. K. Marvin, A. A. Ranney, A. Thomas, S. Thomas.
The fluctuations in the town's population are shown in the following figures: 1791, 446; 1800, 44; 1810, 709; 1820, 721; 1830, 907; 1840, 942; 1850, 1,027; 1860, 853; 1870, 902; 1880, 775.
Manufactures and Industries. -- We have briefly alluded to the growing of wheat as one of the prominent early pursuits of the farmers of the town. This continued with gradual diminution for thirty years, until the lessening crops told the farmers what would be the inevitable result. In later years only about sufficient of this grain has been raised for home consumption. Corn, oats, flax, beans, and buckwheat have always been raised here to a considerable extent. Dairying was carried on in the town from early years until about 1825, to which date it showed encouraging growth and prosperity; but when the Merino sheep excitement began, very many of the farmers turned their attention to the new field, and dairying was much neglected. In recent years but little more has been done than to supply the home demand with butter. The sheep and wool industry has never reached the importance in this town that it has in many others of the county, though some flocks have attained considerable prominence.
In manufactures the first operations were towards the building of saw-mills; such is the case in all new communities. Of the early mills and factories Mr. Weeks wrote as follows:
"The first saw-mill in this town was erected by Colonel Thomas Sawyer in 1783. A grist-mill was also put up in the same building, and set in successful operation early in the year 1784. These mills were afterward repaired, and if the author is correctly informed, were at least once rebuilt. The first forge was also erected by Mr. Sawyer, in 1791. Samuel Keep was his first bloomer,
Page 606 HISTORY OF ADDISON COUNTY.
and Stephen Gill made his first coal, and rendered him some other assistance in making iron. Nathaniel Chafey erected the first trip-hammer shop, a little below the place afterwards occupied by Chester Kingsley's woolen factory. Mr. Chafey erected this shop about the year 1794, and was a celebrated axe-maker. Another trip-hammer shop was put up by John Deming, about the year 1795, but it was afterward converted into a shovel factory. In 1811 a charter was granted by the Legislature of the State for the manufacture of glass, to Ep. Jones and other individuals, and accordingly a glass-factory was put up on the western shore of Lake Dunmore, in the following year, which went into successful operation under the direction of Mr. Jones in 1813. About forty operatives were employed in this factory several years. So great was the business done by it that money was made more plenty among us, a good home market was furnished for a part of our agricultural products, and all kinds of business rendered more active. As the company made its deposits at the Farmers' Bank of Troy, N. Y., it issued orders in the form of bank bills, which were stamped and struck off on bank-bill paper, and were in denominations of $1.00, $1.25, $1.50, $1.75, $2.00, and $3.00. These bills, or rather orders, were equally, current with any other bank bills for a number of years. But owing to the sudden changes in the prices of glass, and other unforeseen casualties which took place at the close of the war with Great Britain in 1815, the company was compelled to wind up its business. Eliakim Weeks rebuilt the saw-mill in the village in 1814, and Christopher Johnson rebuilt the grist-mill the same year. About the year 1815 a number of individuals living in Salisbury and vicinity procured a charter from the Legislature of the State, forming a company to manufacture cotton cloths. A factory building was erected. For various reasons the venture was not a success. The factory was burned in 1827. This fire closed the cotton factory speculation in this town. The trip-hammer shop in the village, which had done a good service for many years in hammering iron for its various uses, in the year 1813 was converted into a shovel factory. From this factory several thousands of these useful implements, of a superior kind, were sent out annually for many years. About the year 1832 George Chipman and one or two other enterprising young men repaired the old glass-factory buildings at Lake Dunmore, and put it in successful operation. The factory was now managed with some profit, until about the tenth year, when foreign competition reduced the price of glass so much that the manufacture of it in this town could not any longer be made profitable. In 1853 this glass-factory property was purchased by E. D. Barber, of Middlebury, Vt., and soon after, through his agency, a stock company, called the Lake Dunmore Hotel Company, was formed, and the moneys thereof appropriated to the building of a magnificent hotel and the purchase of accompanying lands. The tavern above referred to was taken down to make room for its more commodious successor. But in making all the improvements an immense
Page 607 TOWN OF SALISBURY.
outlay was made, the company became insolvent, the property was mortgaged, and finally passed into the hands of Messrs. Jones, Pratt, Wood & Dodge, of Florida. In 1833 Hinsdale McHurd built a small woolen factory, on the ground previously occupied by the cotton factory, and manufactured the first woolen cloths made by machinery. This factory was burnt down in 1843, but was rebuilt during the same year on a more extensive scale by Henry W. Walker, and continued in successful operation, in different hands, up to recent years. Subsequently a forge was erected by A. B. Huntly, a young and enterprising man, near the eastern part of the Indian Garden, and on the stream which flows from Lake Dunmore. This forge was built on the most approved modern plan, and was capable of doing an extensive business. But the expense of building having been very great, and the reduction in the price of iron, on account of foreign competition, rendering Mr. Huntly unable to meet the expense of carrying on his business, after having made a few hundred tons of excellent iron he was compelled to give up his business. In 1851 Ebenezer Weeks and James Fitts, jr., put up a grist-mill in Salisbury village, which has been a great convenience to the town. This mill was made after the most modern plan, and fitted throughout with new machinery. Mr. Weeks afterward sold out his interest in the concern to Mr. Fitts, who in turn sold to E. A. Hamilton. The mill subsequently burned, but was at once rebuilt, and has since changed hands several times, having been operated by Wells Utley, Joseph Lovett, Harvey Lampson, Melvin Stowe, and Joshua Barber. It is now owned by William Belknap, and was leased in July, 1885, by F. C. Rock. The saw-mill at Salisbury village, which has been alluded to, is now owned and operated by Henry Kinsman & Co., they having taken it in February, 1885. Its capacity is about 10,000 feet daily. What was known as the Salisbury Woolen Mills were built about 1842, and purchased by Chester Kingsley in 1859. In 1879 Charles and Denison Kingsley, sons of Chester, changed the woolen-factory building into a dry pulp-mill, for the manufacture of wood pulp for paper making. These gentlemen also started a wet pulp-mill a few years ago at the village, which turns out from two to three tons a day. The saw-mill of Newton & Thompson, on the east side of Lake Dunmore, manufactures about 600,000 feet of lumber annually. These comprise the principal present manufactures of the town.
The village history of Salisbury is necessarily brief. A post-office was established at the site of the village on the 31st of January, 1801. Since that date the following postmasters have held the office: Patrick Johnson, 1801 to 1809; Jacob Linsly, 1809 to 1815; Austin Johnson, 1815 to 1817; John M. Weeks, 1817 to 1824; Harvey Deming, 1824 to 1847; John Prout, 1847; Abram B. Huntly, 1847 to 1851; Sumner Briggs, 1851 to 1852; Will-
Page 608 HISTORY OF ADDISON COUNTY.
iam Rustin, 1852 to 1854; Keros K. Howard, 1854. Benjamin Eastwood succeeded Howard, and L. N. Waterhouse, who built the Kinsman store and took the office about 1863, followed Eastwood and was succeeded by Jerome Converse, and the latter by Henry Kinsman, in 1879. He held the office until 1885, when he was succeeded by Keros Howard. Another post-office was established under the name of West Salisbury, July 19, 1850. J. S. Messer was the first postmaster and was succeeded by Royal D. Hedden. He was succeeded by A. J. Johnson, the present incumbent.
The following list shows all those who had engaged in mercantile business in the town down to 1860, and is from Mr. Weeks's book: Josiah Rossiter 1797, Libeus Harris 1802, Merriam & Kilburn 1804, Bela Farnham 1804, Ambrose Porter 1805, Brooks & Merriam 1805, Joshua Brooks 1806, Weed & Conant 1806, Patrick Johnson 1807, P. & A. Johnson 1808, Dickinson & Brooks 1810, Aaron Barrows 1815, James I. Catlin 1815, Catlin & Atwood 1817, Jason Rice 1826, Parker & Ives 1826, Barrows & Kidder 1828, Abiel Manning 1829, John Beckwith & Co. 1831, Linsly & Chipman 1832, Howard Harris 1844, William Rustin 1851, E. A. Hamilton 1852, S. E. Waterhouse 1852, James Fitts, jr., 1858, William Rustin & Co. 1858, Benjamin Eastwood 1859. At about the time of the opening of the railroad through the town a union store was established in the depot building at West Salisbury, under management of J. S. Messer. It was soon closed. E. H. Packard has had a general store near the station since 1884; it was previously kept for a number of years by F. W. Atwood. Henry Kinsman has kept a general store at the village since 1879. Jerome Converse traded on that site a number of years previous.
Hotels. -- The old Howard Hotel, which stood on the north side of the river, was burned in 1875. This house was built and kept many years by Ellery Howard, and later by his sons. The building in which Keros Howard now keeps a tavern, on the north side of the stream, is one of the oldest structures in the place. It was taken by Mr. Howard when the other house burned. It was long used as a public house, R. T. Howard, Elnathan Darling, Abiel Manning, Thomas W. Kelar, James Cook, and others having kept it. The Lake Dunmore Hotel has been alluded to as having been built by the Lake Dunmore Hotel Company. This house is beautifully situated in a wild and romantic spot at the foot of the picturesque lake, and is a popular summer resort. It is now under management of W. H. Merritt.
Physicians. -- We give below a list of the physicians who have practiced in Salisbury, some of whom have received notice in the medical chapter in this work: Darius Matthews 1789, Eliphaz Perkins 1791, Thomas Dunbar 1796, Paul Thorndike 1801, John Horton 1802, Henry Porter 1802, Rev. Abiel Jones 1804, Rufus Newton 1805, Eli Derby 1808, Harvey Guernsey 1808, Josiah W. Hale 1812, A. G. Dana 1821, Washington Miller 1822, Luke Hale 1829, William Fitts 1830, M. H. Ranney 1835, O. G. Dyar 1846, J. N. Moore 1851, C. S.
Page 609 TOWN OF SALISBURY.
Chase 1856, H. C. Atwood 1859. Dr. Orton C. Bump, at present practicing in the town, was born in Salisbury May 22, 1832. He studied in and was graduated from the New York College of Medicine and Surgery, and first practiced in Shoreham. He then removed to Cambridge, N. Y., and his health becoming impaired he engaged for a time in other business. He subsequently returned to Salisbury and now resides with his venerable father, Cyrus Bump. Dr. E. H. Martin was born in Foo Chow, China, in 1861. He studied medicine in the University of Vermont and was graduated in 1884; he has since practiced in Salisbury.
Attorneys. -- There is no lawyer at present practicing in the town. The people are seldom in urgent need of an attorney's services and can afford to go to Middlebury for them. Mr. Weeks gave the following as the names of lawyers who were resident here at the dates mentioned: Horatio Waterous 1802, James Andrews, jr., 1809, Thomas French 1811, S. H. Tupper 1816, Theophilus Capen 1817, Robert Bostwick 1823, E. N. Briggs 1826, John Prout 1838, John Colby 1848, A. W. Briggs 1859.
The Congregational Church of Salisbury was organized in February, 1804, with the nine following members: Solomon Story, John Holt, Aaron L. Beach, Gilbert Everts, jr., Eliakim Weeks, Hannah Weeks, Anna Copeland, Elizabeth Beach, and Hannah Everts. The record of organization is signed by Revs. Jedediah Bushnell and Benjamin Worcester. The church had no settled minister until 1811, and no deacons were elected until May 8 of that year, when Aaron L. Beach and John Holt were chosen. October 15, 1811, Rev. Rufus Pumroy was settled as the first pastor. He remained until November, 1816, and was succeeded by Rev. Joseph Cheney, eleven years, Rev. Eli Hyde, three years, when the church was vacant until 1845. Rev. George W. Barrows was the next pastor. The present pastor is Rev. S. P. Giddings, who came November, 1884. The membership is now about seventy-five. The officers of the church are Cyrus Bump and Horace Sheldon, deacons, John E. Weeks, clerk. Cyrus Bump is Sunday-school superintendent.
Methodist Episcopal Church. -- The nucleus of this church was formed about 1799, but of how it prospered between that date and 1836 very little is known. In 1836, when the Hon. Henry Olin settled in the town, the church began a period of prosperity, owing largely to his energetic efforts. In 1837 meetings were held for the purpose of awakening interest in the building of a church, which was accomplished in 1838, and regular preaching was begun. We cannot follow the long list of pastors, with the numerous changes; but Rev. James A. Heath came to the church in April, 1885. The stewards are O. P. Mead and J. Walley. The membership is small at the present time.